Conditional Sentences / If-Clauses Type I, II und III

 

Conditional Sentences / If-Clauses Type I, II und III

Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are three types of Conditional Sentences.

Conditional Sentence Type 1

 

Simple Present (Present Simple) – Introduction

Simple present is also called present simple.

The simple present expresses an action in the present taking place once, never or several times. It is also used for actions that take place one after another and for actions that are set by a timetable or schedule. The simple present also expresses facts in the present.

Future I Simple will Level: elementary

Exercises on Future I Simple with will

Will future expresses a spontaneous decision, an assumption with regard to the future or an action in the future that cannot be influenced.

Form of will Future

  positive negative question
no differences I will speak. I will not speak. Will I speak?

Use of will Future

  • a spontaneous decision

example: Wait, I will help you.

  • an opinion, hope, uncertainty or assumption regarding the future

example: He will probably come back tomorrow.

  • a promise

example: I will not watch TV tonight.

  • an action in the future that cannot be influenced

example: It will rain tomorrow.

  • conditional clauses type I

example: If I arrive late, I will call you.

Signal Words

  • in a year, next …, tomorrow
  • Vermutung: I think, probably, we might …, perhaps

 

 

Conditional Sentence Type 2

Simple Past (Past Simple)

Exercises on Simple Past

The simple past expresses an action in the past taking place once, never, several times. It can also be used for actions taking place one after another or in the middle of another action.

Form of Simple Past

  Positive Negative Question
no differences I spoke. I did not speak. Did I speak?

For irregular verbs, use the past form (see list of irregular verbs, 2nd column). For regular verbs, just add “ed”.

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed

Exceptions in spelling when adding ed Example
after a final e only add d love – loved
final consonant after a short, stressed vowel
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled
admit – admitted
travel – travelled
final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried

Use of Simple Past

  • action in the past taking place once, never or several times

Example: He visited his parents every weekend.

  • actions in the past taking place one after the other

Example: He came in, took off his coat and sat down.

  • action in the past taking place in the middle of another action

Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang.

  • if sentences type II (If I talked, …)

Example: If I had a lot of money, I would share it with you.

Signal Words of Simple Past

  • yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
  • If-Satz Typ II (If I talked, …)

Exercises on Simple Past

Tests

Grammar in Texts

Comparison with other Tenses

 

 

Simple Past (Past Simple)

Exercises on Simple Past

The simple past expresses an action in the past taking place once, never, several times. It can also be used for actions taking place one after another or in the middle of another action.

Form of Simple Past

  Positive Negative Question
no differences I spoke. I did not speak. Did I speak?

For irregular verbs, use the past form (see list of irregular verbs, 2nd column). For regular verbs, just add “ed”.

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed

Exceptions in spelling when adding ed Example
after a final e only add d love – loved
final consonant after a short, stressed vowel
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled
admit – admitted
travel – travelled
final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried

Use of Simple Past

  • action in the past taking place once, never or several times

Example: He visited his parents every weekend.

  • actions in the past taking place one after the other

Example: He came in, took off his coat and sat down.

  • action in the past taking place in the middle of another action

Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang.

  • if sentences type II (If I talked, …)

Example: If I had a lot of money, I would share it with you.

Signal Words of Simple Past

  • yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
  • If-Satz Typ II (If I talked, …)

Exercises on Simple Past

Tests

Grammar in Texts

Comparison with other Tenses

 

 

Exercise on Conditional I Simple

Put the verbs into the correct form (conditional I simple).

  1. They (walk) to the station.
  2. He (tell) you the truth.
  3. I (go) home.
  4. They (watch) a scary movie.
  5. You (not / say) that.
  6. She (not / do) this.
  7. (give / you) him this letter?
  8. I (not / wait) any longer.
  9. (wake / she) me up at six o’clock?
  10. (help / they) him in the garden?

 

Conditional Sentence Type 3

Form of Past Perfect Simple

  Positive Negative Question
no differences I had spoken. I had not spoken. Had I spoken?

For irregular verbs, use the past participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add ed.

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed Example
after final e, only add d love – loved
final consonant after a short, stressed vowel
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled
admit – admitted
travel – travelled
final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried

Use of Past Perfect

  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
    (putting emphasis only on the fact, not the duration)

Example: Before I came here, I had spoken to Jack.

Example: If I had seen him, I would have talked to him.

Signal Words

  • already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day (with reference to the past, not the present)
  • If-Satz Typ III (If I had talked, …)

Conditional II Simple Level: elementary

The conditional II simple expresses an action that could have taken place in the past.

Form

  • A: He would have talked.
  • N: He would not have talked.
  • Q: Would he have talked?

Use

  • action that could have taken place in the past
  • if causes type III (If I had seen that, I would have helped.)

Exercise on Conditional II Simple

Put the verbs into the correct form (conditional II simple).

  1. They (walk) to the station.
  2. We (sleep) in the tent.
  3. I (win) the race.
  4. He (tell) her.
  5. I (not / open) the door.
  6. We (not / say) that.
  7. She (not / drive) that fast.
  8. (do / he) that?
  9. (travel / you) by train?
  10. (begin / they) earlier?